Student Workbook for
Introduction to Academic Reading
English 188
3 unit credit/no credit
Prof. Dennis Doyle
office: LB 203
818-240-1000, ext.5343
class web page:

Texts: An Introduction to Critical Reading (6th Edition) Leah McCraney
English 188 Syllabus Workbook
a pocket English Dictionary
also needed: Scantrons answer sheets, and basic school supplies. You also need a current GCC picture student identification.

English 188 is a reading course designed for students who need to build their reading skills. Various word attack skills are covered including phonics, word analysis through the study of prefixes and word roots, and the use of context clues. Methods to improve comprehension are also featured. There is extensive use of computer assisted instruction to drill vocabulary and to practice skills covered in class. This is a credit/no credit course. This class is a prerequisite or co-requisite for the English 189 writing class.

Topics Covered:
Phonics, word attack skills, syllabication, vocabulary building, comprehension improvement, drawing conclusions, finding main ideas.

Registration and Drops:
It is your responsibility to see that you are officially registered or dropped from a class. If you stop coming to class without dropping officially, you may get a "No-Credit" in this class. You may also be dropped by the teacher for excessive absences.

That you attend class, pass the 3 big tests, complete at least 16 hours of lab work outside of class this semester, and improve at least two grade levels in your reading. This is a credit/no-credit class. You cannot pass if you miss more than four classes, fail the tests or fail to complete lab work and written assignments. We expect you to show that you are serious about the class by buying your textbooks immediately, being respectful of the learning environment, showing up to every class unless you are seriously ill, coming on time, being alert in class, finishing assignments on time and not leaving class once it has started unless in an emergency or pre-arranged with Mr.Doyle. Please turn off any beepers or cell phones while in class. Make arrangements with the instructor before class time if you need to leave early for any reason.

Lab Work:
At least one hour of lab work must be done each week in either the English Lab (AD 238-242) or the Learning Center's CAI Lab (AD 221). In order to get credit for lab work, you must check in with your Glendale College Picture I.D. each time you do your work. You may work any time that the Labs are open, but not during the time you should be in class. Tell them that you are doing Lab Work for English 188 or you may not be properly credited.

Academic Honesty
Mr. Doyle follows the official college policy concerning cheating and plagiarism.
Working from Home
Some, but not all of the course work may be done from home if you have access to the Internet. Let Mr. Doyle know if you are planning to do this. Set your browser to: and follow the directions to Mr.Doyle's English 188 home page.

Class Schedule
This outline may be changed as the class proceeds in order to accommodate a particular section's strength or weakness and to work around holidays and unexpected class cancellations. In addition to these subjects, we will be doing additional outside readings from current magazines and newspapers.

Week 1 class introductions, pretesting, lab work orientation.
Week 2 introduction to phonics, first lab work hours due in the English Lab, study skills.
Week 3 phonics rules, first lab work hours due in the Learning Center.
Week 4 phonics, start weekly SRA Lab readings.
Week 5 dividing words into syllables.
Week 6 review of syllabication and phonics.
Week 7 quiz on phonics.
Week 8 Latin and Greek roots, minimum of seven hours of lab work in the English Lab should be completed by this week.
Week 9 review of Latin and Greek roots.
Week 10 review of Latin and Greek roots.
Week 11 test on prefixes and roots.
Week 12 outlines.
Week 13 working with outlines.
Week 14 finding topic sentences.
Week 15 finding main ideas in paragraphs.
Week 16 more finding main ideas in paragraphs, review, post-testing.
Week 17 review, final exams, conferences


How to Use the Computers in the English Lab (AD 238)
The English Lab has Apple Macintosh computers. When you get to the lab, they are likely to be already on. If not, ask for help from the aid, or find another computer. When everything is warmed up, an open window should with icons listing the various programs.

Our lab work is accessed by using a web browser. The better web browser for the Mac is
Netscape , though Microsoft Explorer will also work. Start the browser by tapping on the picture/icon. We have set these browsers to the local homepage at (Please do not change the homepage.) A page like this should appear on the screen:


Tap on the underlined words "Welcome to the Internet" .
This page will load:

Select the item, "Lab Work for Mr.Doyle's Classes" .

This page should load:

Tap on English 188 .
A page like this should appear. It is the course assignment-help-information page for the class.

First, log on to the page by typing your name in the box next to #2. Press the <Submit> button, then hit the <BACK> button on the browser. Follow the rest of the directions for check-in.
What follows on the page is a week-by-week listing of assignments that you should do in order each week. I update the page weekly; check the web page frequently for the current assignments. Some assignments are simply links to pages that should be read. Others are written assignments that require you to answer questions and submit answers. Follow directions. Ask Mr.Doyle or one of the aides if you need help. Keep up with your weekly assignments. When you are done using the computer, quit the browser program but leave the computer on.

Other Materials Available in the English Lab
Beside using Netscape to navigate to school assignments, you may use it to surf the web, look up information for school reports, or to receive or send e-mail. In addition, the word processor Microsoft Word is on all the computers, which you may use to write and print school papers. Currently, we are not charging extra for paper. If you want to save any work done on the word processors, you need to bring your own 3 1/2 inch floppy disk. That disk may need to be formatted before it can be used. Consult with the English Lab Staff on to how to do this.
There are also some drill and practice programs on Typing on the computers, as well as programs on various Writing and Reading skills. Look through the icons of the other programs available in the startup window. You are free to use tese programs if you like, but keep up with the assigned lab work first. You always start these lessons by tapping on the picture/icon with the mouse.
You can stop and close most Macintosh programs by pressing "Q " and the "open apple " button which is on the bottom left part of the keyboard at the same time. Most programs can be stopped also by pulling down the "File" menu with the mouse and selecting "Quit".

Accessing the Lab Work over the Internet from Off-Campus
Some of the lessons may be done from an off-campus computer with access to the Internet either through America OnLine, EarthLink, WebTV or from any other internet service provider. After launching the browser software, set your browser to: and follow the above directions. It is very important that you always fill in the form and post your name in the English 188 assignment sheet page each time you do lab work and especially when doing it off campus in order to get credit.
How to Use the Computers in the Learning Center CAI Lab (AD221)
For part of the lab work, you will be using the computers in the Learning Center. These computers are running Windows 2000. If the PassKey program is not already running, tap on the PassKey icon on the desktop. When everything is warmed up, a screen like this should appear:

When you use the CAI Lab for the first time, one of the lab managers will assign you user name and password . Always use your user name and password to ensure that you will get credit for your work. If you just want to browse around the lesson without credit, sign in as student . After typing your name and password, tap on the green arrow. This next page should appear:

Tap on Reading and do the lessons in the order presented in the menu. The software is designed to be diagnostic/prescriptive, which means that the software will give you a series of questions at the start of each lesson. If you do well in the lesson, the computer will automatically skip ahead to an area that you need to work on. You work continuously on the lessons and periodic reports are sent to the instructor. The program keeps track of where you left off, but only if you close the program correctly. When you are finished with an assignment press the hit Quit button. You may need to press quit several times to get back to the sgn in page. Don't turn off the computer. Report any computers that don't work.

Other Materials Available in the CAI Lab

Web browsers also available in this lab to surf the web, look up information for school reports, or to receive or send e-mail. Word processing is not permitted in the CAI lab and there are no working printers connected to the network. There are also some drill and practice programs on various Writing and Reading skills. PassKey also has brush up programs in Writing, Math and General Science which you may use. You always start these lessons by tapping on the picture/icon with the mouse when in the Windows desktop.

Summary of Basic Phonics Rules

The vowels are "a,e,i,o, and u"; also sometimes "y &w". This also includes the diphthongs "oi,oy,ou,ow,au,aw, oo" and many others.
The consonants are all the other letters which stop or limit the flow of air from the throat in speech. They are: "b,c,d,f,g,h,j,k,l,m,n,p,qu,r,s,t,v,w,x,y,z,ch,sh,th,ph,wh, ng, and gh".

Consonant Rules:

1. Sometimes the rules don't work.
There are many exceptions in English because of the vastness of the language and the many languages from which it has borrowed. The rules do work however, in the majority of the words.

2. Every syllable in every word must have a vowel.
English is a "vocal" language; Every word must have a vowel.

3. "C" followed by "e, i or y" usually has the soft sound of "s". Examples: "cyst", "central", and "city".

4. "G" followed by "e, i or y" usually has the soft sound of "j". Example: "gem", "gym", and "gist".

5. When 2 consonants a joined together and form one new sound, they are a consonant digraph. They count as one sound and one letter and are never separated.
Examples: "ch,sh,th,ph and wh".

The Vowel Rules:

6. When a syllable ends in a consonant and has only one vowel, that vowel is short. Examples: "fat, bed, fish, spot, luck".

7. When a syllable ends in a silent "e", the silent "e" is a signal that the vowel in front of it is long. Examples: "make, fete, kite, rope, and use".

8. When a syllable has 2 vowels together, the first vowel is usually long and the second is silent. Examples: "pain, eat, boat, res/cue, say, grow". NOTE: Diphthongs don't follow this rule; In a diphthong, the vowels blend together to create a single new sound. The diphthongs are: "oi,oy,ou,ow,au,aw, oo" and many others.

9. When a syllable ends in any vowel and is the only vowel, that vowel is usually long. Examples: "pa/per, me, I, o/pen, u/nit, and my".

10. When a vowel is followed by an "r" in the same syllable, that vowel is "r-controlled". It is not long nor short. "R-controlled "er,ir,and ur" often sound the same (like "er"). Examples: "term, sir, fir, fur, far, for, su/gar, or/der".

Mark the Syllables long, short, or r-controlled

wells ty ug van wake wheel white witt ters weeks ve den
jot luke stef keen slack stone smart pea ray stem doy tar
se taub pet pu ren ner
rode rose san scul pace selt
ser go mez gray grove haft
han ley rick horn hous hu
ban bane mete ob obe oab
bo bote fli flit flite flat
flate mo moe moat mot

Mark the Syllables #2

gra grate grail grat re rep
refe tre glore pre aip ep
epe eap ai fai aif in
ine i ca hib cram flam
u pu upe up o oe
mo mon mone hi lat ie
fla ser mi rest lipe se
sig gest per ban nu im
o ize ha ap pi ter
fin loat mar eb ebe eab
o mo gas ar vor mit
tu lot ape

Mark the Syllables #3

mas aip pub tor um ean
on loa ane u vel pede
sic lent teen nith zen gla
mont ber gla feen e or
ro fi ole tro ness mu
eet lee con cate sli ing
del i in ine den phine phin prep sloff oar slo ae
deav dep a ap ape

Basic Syllable Rules

1. To find the number of syllables:
---count the vowels in the word,
---subtract any silent vowels, (like the silent "e" at the end of a word or the second vowel when two vowels a together in a syllable)
---subtract one vowel from every dipthong, (diphthongs only count as one vowel sound.)
---the number of vowels sounds left is the same as the number of syllables.
The number of syllables that you hear when you pronounce a word is the same as the number of vowels sounds heard. For example:
The word "came" has 2 vowels, but the "e" is silent, leaving one vowel sound and one syllable.
The word "outside" has 4 vowels, but the "e" is silent and the "ou" is a diphthong which counts as only one sound, so this word has only two vowels sounds and therefore, two syllables.

2. Divide between two middle consonants.
Split up words that have two middle consonants. For example:
hap/pen, bas/ket, let/ter, sup/per, din/ner, and Den/nis. The only exceptions are the consonant digraphs. Never split up consonant digraphs as they really represent only one sound. The exceptions are "th", "sh", "ph", "th", "ch", and "wh".

3. Usually divide before a single middle consonant.
When there is only one syllable, you usually divide in front of it, as in:
"o/pen", "i/tem", "e/vil", and "re/port". The only exceptions are those times when the first syllable has an obvious short sound, as in "cab/in".

4. Divide before the consonant before an "-le" syllable.
When you have a word that has the old-style spelling in which the "-le" sounds like "-el", divide before the consonant before the "-le". For example: "a/ble", "fum/ble", "rub/ble" "mum/ble" and "thi/stle". The only exception to this are "ckle" words like "Tick/le".

5. Divide off any compound words, prefixes, suffixes and roots which have vowel sounds.
Split off the parts of compound words like "sports/car" and "house/boat". Divide off prefixes such at "un/happy", "pre/paid", or "re/write". Also divide off suffixes as in the words "farm/er", "teach/er", "hope/less" and "care/ful". In the word "stop/ping", the suffix is actually "-ping" because this word follows the rule that when you add "-ing" to a word with one syllable, you double the last consonant and add the "-ing".

Long and Short Vowel Practice
Underline the word which has the short vowel sound in each set.

stage / stag bed /bead bit /bite
hate /hat led /lead goat /got
pine /pin spin /spine can /cane
kite /kit bran /brain man /main
aid /ad plan / plain pal / pail
dine/ din rod / road net / neat
hop /hope coat /cot cape / cap
ripe / rip bait/ bat van /vain
back /bake dim /dime twin /twine
died / did us/ use meat /met
laid /lad wine /win cub /cube
tape /tap beast /best hop /hope
cape /cap bleed /bled hid /hide
twin /twine use /us paid /pad
tube /tub cub /cube ten /teen
men /mean wheel/ well tube/ tub
rat/ rate pan /pain miss /mice
plum/ plume mop /mope Kate /cat
note /not knot /note ripe/rip
hat/hate pan / pain strip/stripe

Long and Short Vowels

Use the long vowel words listed on the previous page to complete
these sentences.

1. The old man needed to use a ________ to walk.

2. The juice of grapes is fermented in order to make ____________.

3. A banana is _______ when the skin is a dull yellow color.

4. A type of thin rope which is used to tie packages is called _______.

5. A large hairy animal is a ________.

6. The plural of mouse is________ .

7. When you go fishing, you must use _______ in order to attract the fish.

8. I had a pet cat, but it _______. and we buried it.

9. The opposite of love is _______ .

10. The injured football player was in _______.

11. Another word for feather is a _______.

12. When you drive, you must stay to the right of the yellow_______
painted in the middle of the street.

13. Ten cents is a ________ .

14. Superman wears a ________ around his shoulders.

15. A synonym for the word help is _______.

More Long and Short Vowel Sounds
There are two words at the end of each incomplete sentence. Put a macron over the vowel in the word which has a long vowel sound. Then complete the sentences by writing the words in the right places.
1. Janice said she did _______ write the _______ . (not,note)

2. A girl may like a small _______ but _______ a large one. (hate,hat)

3. I found a _______among the _______needles. (pin, pine)

4. I asked my _______sister to get me a piece of _______.(twine, twin)

5. Put water in a _______and wash the _______in the window. (pane,pan)

6. Those are the _______dolls that you _______out of paper. (cut,cute)

7. Will you _______it where you _______it before? (hid,hide)

8. We _______down the _______ .(slid,slide)

9. The old man _______walk with a _______.(cane, can)

10. I know a _______who can braid a horse's _______. (man,mane)

11. I _______ I can _______on one foot and win a race.(hop,hope)

12. The colt _______me when I gave him a _______ of apple. (bite,bit)

13. Will you let _______ _______ your colored pencils? (use,us)

14. I _______ the whole pizza _______ recess. (at, ate)

15. We used a long _______to put the water into the _______ .(tub,tube)

16. You wear a _______on your shoulders and a _______ on your head. (cap,cape)
17. I used Father's tool ________when I made my ________.(kite,kit)
18. The lights were ________ when I had dropped the ________. (dim,dime)
Syllables Practice
Divide and mark each word

bonbons anthems tulips railway vestal steamheat protest female speechless plastic cowboys fatal immigrant mislaid surreal madness nineteen hundred matter eternal
wily implement propping outstretch downcast singing waiting rebirth symbolic exchange channel number without reclaim devised
native desegregate retrograde disarm junkman
papers graveyard newspaper Sterno underground subway unleash befuddle streetcorner mayor
hotdogs unknown briskly gambling murder weakness terrorize ruthless stalemate establishment stabbing Glendale reduce apply chancellor

Syllables Practice
Divide and mark each word

ernest ander fojo balcer franco lee bate frost brenner gerz carroll jones
luu burney irwin lugo duncan kibler malkin eddy kenney maccon keegan nell klemter macken zee jeffrey
moreno lopez miller bello gillooly lorenzo monk bray easley mackey monroe brown dof makwel morris

Accent Rules

When a word has more than one syllable, one of the syllables is always a little louder than the others. The syllable with the louder stress is the accented syllable. It may seem that the placement of accents in words is often random or accidental, but these are some rules that usually work. (This won't be on the test)

1. Accents are often on the first syllable. Examples: ba'/sic, pro'/gram.

2. In words that have suffixes or prefixes, the accent is usually on the main root word. Examples: box'/es, un/tie'.

3. If de-, re-, ex-, in-,po-, pro-, or a- is the first syllable in a word, it is usually not accented. Examples: de/lay', ex/plore'.

4. Two vowel letters together in the last syllable of a word often indicates an accented last syllable. Examples: com/plain', con/ceal'.

5. When there are two like consonant letters within a word, the syllable before the double consonants is usually accented. Examples: be/gin'/ner, let'/ter.

6. The accent is usually on the syllable before the suffixes -ion, ity, -ic, -ical, -ian, -ial, or -ious, and on the second syllable before the suffix -ate. Examples: af/fec/ta'/tion, dif/fer/en'/ti/ate.

7. In words of three or more syllables, one of the first two syllables is usually accented. Examples: ac'/ci/dent, de/ter'/mine.
Roots from Greek and Latin


twa, twi
sex, hex

prepositions, direction, time or place
ab, a-
things, condition or action
homo (Latin)
homo (Greek)


ess (female)

Match the Words with the Definitions #1

1. abolish ______ a major communicable disease .
2. admire ______ a disease with one nucleus.
3. bilateral ______ a four sided area of land.
4. bilingual ______ a group of five babies born at the same time.
5. centennial ______ a group of six people, usually a music group.
6. contradict ______ a little town nearby a large city.
7. decimate ______ a period of 100 years.
8. dual ______ a period of nine days of prayer.
9. duplicate ______ a set of three quick notes in music.
10. epidemic ______ a set of two babies born at the same time.
11. epitaph ______ a set of two objects.
12. hemisphere ______ able to speak two languages.
13. hypertension ______ after a baby is born.
14. intravenous ______ consisting of only one cell.
15. mononucleosis ______ half of a globe or sphere.
16. monotone ______ high blood pressure.
17. novena ______ marriage to more than one person .
18. Pentecost ______ one color or tone only.
19. polygamy ______ one fourth of a gallon.
20. postpartum ______ special because there is only one.
21. promote ______ the fifty days after Easter.
22. quadrangle ______ to look to in respect.
23. quart ______ to make copies.
24. quintuplets ______ to move forward or advance in rank.
25. sextet ______ reduce by 1/10th, often losses in war.
26. suburb ______ to speak against or in opposition.
27. triplet ______ to take something away.
28. twin ______ two sided
29. unicellular ______ within the vein.
30. unique ______ words written on a grave stone or marker.

Match the Words with the Definitions #2

1. extracurricular ______hot water drips through coffee
2. counterrevolutionary ______false teeth
3. percolate ______knowing all things
4. posterior ______water carrier of the Zodiac
5. prenatal ______out of correct time
6. Aquarius ______outside of regular classes
7. audition ______a hearing to sing, dance, or act
8. anachronism ______dead are prepared here
9. recognize ______one who walks
10. omniscient ______what you sit on
11. credentials ______one who looks
12. dentures ______a rebel against a revolution
13. mortuary ______before the birth of a baby
14. pedestrian ______inability to sleep
15. podiatrist ______to write aimlessly
16. porter ______one who carries things
17. rupture ______to know someone or something
18. inspector ______to manage badly
19. insomnia ______an official license or paper
20. scribble ______easily broken down
21. mismanage ______the distance around a circle
22. biodegradable ______to break or burst
23. circumference ______a foot doctor

Match the Words with the Definitions #3

1. homogenized ______not getting enough to eat.
2. heterosexual ______marriage to one person only
3. automatic ______one who speaks many languages
4. astrology ______the study of stars
5. nautical ______having the same consistency
6. theology ______a list of sources at the end of a paper or book
7. hydrophobia ______magnetic tape for recording TV
8. polyglot ______study of God
9. anthropology ______false teeth
10.monogamy ______self working machine ______reference to sailing
12.videotape ______fear of water
13.hydrotherapy ______a person who loves English things
14.dentures ______study of human cultures
15.bibliography ______reference to the act of seeing
16.anglophile ______therapy by squirting water on you
17.malnutrition ______sexually attracted to the opposite sex

Match the Words with the Definitions #4 - Suffixes

-ly -less -ful -ment
-ship -ist -ess -ness
1. A noun suffix which changes an adjective to a noun.______
Write 2 examples of words with this suffix_____________
2. An adjective suffix which means "without".______
Write 2 examples of words with this suffix_____________
3. A noun suffix which indicates a female form.______
Write 2 examples of words with this suffix_____________
4. A noun suffix which indicates a person.______
Write 2 examples of words with this suffix_____________
5. An adjective suffix which means "full of".______
Write 2 examples of words with this suffix_____________
6. An adverb suffix which changes an adjective into an adverb._
Write 2 examples of words with this suffix_____________
7. A suffix which changes a verb into a noun.______
Write 2 examples of words with this suffix_____________
8. A noun suffix which changes a noun into another noun meaning the "idea of ....".______
Write 2 examples of words with this suffix_____________
Match the Words with the Definitions #5

1. Transposition ______Evidence that indicates against
2. Unicellular ______A chemical agent that works against a toxin
3. Semiconscious ______A three-headed muscle of the upper arm
4. Contraindication ______Outside of the uterus
5. Anteflexion ______Placed across (to the other side)
6 . Hemiplegia ______Outside of the liver
7. Extrauterine ______After having eaten
8. Antitoxin ______Relating to having a single cell
9. Prenatal ______Bad or poor position
10. Subaural ______Within the cranium
11. Triceps ______Half or partially conscious
12. Postcibal ______Free from association
13. Malposition ______Coming before the operation
14. Intracranial ______Bending forward
15. Disassociate ______Under the ear
16. Unilateral ______Before birth
17. Bilateral ______The condition that a person is born with
18. Intravenous ______Paralysis of half the body
19. Preoperative ______Inability to sleep
20. Congenital ______Relating to two sides
21. Incompetency ______Half or part of a circle
22. Inframammary ______Referring to under the breast bone
23. Malnutrition ______A condition of not being competent
24. Transfusion ______acting against a fever
25. Extrahepatic ______Passing blood from one person to another
26. Contraceptive ______Relating to only one side
27. Antipyretic ______A condition of poor nutrition
28. Substernal ______Within a vein
29. Semicircle ______Under or below the mammary gland
30. Insomnia ______against fertilization of the ovum

Roots Dictionary
Roots Definitions Examples
ab,a not, from abnormal
acro high acrophobia ad,ac,ap to, toward admit
agri, agor, acr field agoraphobia
ambi both, two ambidextrous
ambl walk somnambulism
amo,am love amiable
anthro man anthropology
anti against antimatter
arch high archbishop
aqua water aquarium
astro star astronaut
aud hear audience
bene, bonu well, good benefit, bonus
bi, du, di, twa, twi two bisexual
bib, bev drink imbibe
biblio book bibliophile
bio life antibiotics
camera room bicameral
can, ken, cyn dog canine
capt head decapitate
card heart cardiac
cent hundred century
chrom color pan chromatic
chron time chronic
cid, ciss kill, cut suicide
circu around circumference
clud, clos closed exclude
cogn know recognize
contra against contradict
corp body corpse
counter against counterrevolutionary
cred believe credit
cyn dog cynic
dec ten decade
dent teeth dentist
derm skin epidermis
deus God divine
dextra right dexterity
dict speak dictionary
doc, dox teach docent
dyn power dynamic
epi on top epitaph
eu happy, good euthanasia
extra over, above extrahepatic
fer carry transfer
ferr iron ferric
fin end infinite
frac, frag break fragile
frat brother fraternal
gamy wife polygamy
gen begin, race generation
gig, gia big gigabit
glot,gloss tongue glossary
gno know ignorant
graph,gram write paragraph
gyny woman gynecology
hemi half hemisphere
hep liver hepatitis
hetero different heterosexual
homo same homogenized
homo man homicide
hydr water hydrogen
hyper over hyperactive
hypo under hypotension
inter between international
intra within intravenous
ject, jac throw injection
kil thousand kilowatt
lat side unilateral
ling tongue linguistics
locu, loq speak eloquent
log word, study logic
lux,luc light lucid
magna big magnify
mal bad malignant
mand order mandatory
mania crazy pyromaniac
manu hands manipulate
mar sea marine
mater mother maternal
meg big megabyte
micro very small microbe
mit,miss send mission
mal bad malpractice
meter measure thermometer
metro city metropolis
micro small microcomputer
mil thousand mile
mini small minimum
mis wrong misspell
miss, mit send mission
mono one monopoly
morph shape morphology
mort death immortal
multi many multitude
nano dwarf nanotechnology
nat birth natural
naut, nav sail navy
nov, non nine novena
nova new novel
ob, op, not, from obstruct
oct eight octagon
-ology,log study of..., words logical
omni all omnipotent
ortho straight, correct orthodox
pan (Latin) bread companion
pan (Greek) all pancreas
pater father paternity
pax,pac peace pacify
ped,pod feet pedestrian
pen, pend tail penile
pent five Pentecost
petr rock petrify
phil love anglophile
phobia fear claustrophobia
phon sound phonograph
photo light photography
phyte little plant neophyte
polis city-state politics
poly many polygon
port carry portfolio
poss, pon put, place impose
post after postpone
pre before prenatal
pro for, forward promote
pyr fire pyromaniac
quad four quadrangle
quint five quintuplets
rupt break rupture
scio know omniscient
scope see telescope
scrib,script write inscribe
seme seed seminar
semi half semester
sex six sextant
sinestra left sinister
soph wise philosophy
somn sleep insomnia
soror sister sorority
spect look at inspection
sta,sti,stu stand standard
stella star constellation
sub under submarine
super over superior
tact, tang touch tangent
taph stone table
tele far away telepathy
terr earth terrestrial
theo God theology
tele far away telescope
tort twist torture
tox poison toxic
trans across transfusion
tri three triple
twe,twi two twice
uni one unique
urb city suburb
ven go, come intervene
verb word verbal
vert turn, twist pervert
vis,vid see video
vita,viva life vital

Finding Main Ideas in Paragraphs

You can find the main ideas by looking at the way in which paragraphs are written:

A paragraph is a group of sentences about one main idea.

Paragraphs usually have 2 types of sentences:

------a topic sentence, which contains the main idea,
------one or more detail sentences which support, prove, provide more information, explain, or give examples.

You can only tell if you have a detail or topic sentence by comparing the sentences with each other. The only exception to this is if there is only one sentence in the paragraph. Then the one sentence is the topic sentence.

Look at this example paragraph:

There are many uses for this great product. ---TOPIC SENTENCE

Some mix it with chocolate to make cake icing. --DETAIL SENTENCE

It is the main ingredient in some milkshake mixes. --DETAIL SENTENCE

It will also kill rats in small amounts. --DETAIL SENTENCE

The first sentence introduces the main idea and the other sentences support and give the many uses for the product.

Rules for Finding the Topic Sentence

1. The topic sentence is usually first, but could be in any position in the paragraph.

2. A topic is usually more "general" than the other sentences, that is, it talks about many things and looks at the big picture. Sometimes it refers to more than one thing. Plurals and the words "many", "numerous", or "several" often signal a topic sentence.

3. Detail sentences are usually more "specific" than the topic, that is, they usually talk about one single or small part or side of an idea. Also, the words "for example", "i.e.", "that is", "first", "second", "third", etc., and "finally" often signal a detail.

4. Most of the detail sentences support, give examples, prove, talk about, or point toward the topic in some way.

How can you be sure that you have a topic sentence? Try this trick:

---Switch the sentence around into a question. If the other sentences seem to "answer" the question, then you've got it.

Where is the Topic Sentence?

Model 1.
Americans enjoy many advantages. They enjoy freedom of expression. They have freedom of movement within the country. They have a high standard of living.

Model 2.
Americans enjoy freedom of expression. They have freedom of movement within the country. They have a high standard of living. Certainly Americans enjoy many advantages.

Model 3.
Americans enjoy many advantages. Americans enjoy freedom of expression. Americans have freedom of movement within the country. They have a high standard of living. Americans are truly blessed in many ways.

Model 4.
The previous discussion has pointed out the duties and responsibilities of being an American citizen. Now let us turn to the many advantages that Americans enjoy. They have freedom of expression. They have freedom of movement within the country. They have a high standard of living.

Model 5.
Americans enjoy freedom of expression. Americans have freedom of movement within the country. They have a high standard of living.

advantages= good things freedom of expression= free speech and freedom of the press
high standard of living= comparable wealth

Where is the Topic Sentence?

Model 1. Model 2. Model 3. Model 4. Model 5.

Topic is first, Topic is last, Topic is first + Topic in the Topic is not
followed by details. details precede. last. middle. stated, but implied

1. Sometimes the teacher acts like he is crazy. He keeps forgetting his student's names. He doesn't collect the homework sometimes. Once, he even forgot to wear shoes to class.

2. In Spanish, they say "paz". In Vietnamese it is "hóa bính". They say "pax" in Latin and "síochán" in Irish. You can say the word for "peace" in many different ways and in many different languages.

3. Some people use it to clean the paint from brushes. Others use it as a fuel in motor vehicles. It can be used to kill insects. It can sometimes be used to start a barbecue fire.

4. There are many ways to clean your car. Some people just wait until it rains. Others make their children do it at home. Some people drive down to a self-serve car wash. Some people pay others to do it for them.

5. Some like Mexican food. Others prefer Chinese cooking. Many people like many different types of food. Some people will eat only American food.

6. I like American food. I eat burgers whenever I can. I like to eat fries and onion rings. I like to drink cokes and milkshakes. American food is my favorite food.

7. Sometimes they're five minutes late. Sometimes they're ten minutes late. Some come as late as thirty minutes late. No matter how late they come, late students are missing class work and may miss important material.

8. The trees are green this time of year. The sky is blue. The ground is brown. My shoes are black.

9. Good friends are always willing to help you. If you need help with your car, they will help you fix it. If you need a ride to school, they'll bring you.

10. The following are some ways to help you understand what you read. First, look at the title and any pictures. Then skim through the text quickly to get a general idea of the contents. Next, go back and actually read the passage carefully, slowly,and attentively, as if it really matters. These things will probably help you understand the passage better.

11. When two vowels are together, the first is long and the second is silent. Silent "e" makes the other vowel long. When a syllable ends in a vowel and it is the only vowel, the vowel is usually long. All of these rules help you find a long vowel sound.

12. Digital watches have many functions now. Most tell the time and date. Some also show you the temperature. Some are really small computers which can hold an entire calendar and date book. I've seen one that plays music.

13. Some paragraphs have the topic first. Some paragraphs have the topic last. The topic, though, can be in any position in the paragraph. Sometimes the topic sentence is first and last together.

14. Some students take about six months to speak English well enough to participate in class. Some take about a year. Many need over two years to speak English well. Some students may never learn. Some learn very quickly.

15. You might mistake a little detail for the main idea. Sometimes a student might select an idea which is too general and confuse it with the main idea. These are the two most common errors in detecting main ideas.

16. Everybody need to be loved. Studies show that babies which are not handled often grow sick and die. Adults need support and affection from their family and friends. Older people live longer and have a better quality of life when surrounded by caring people.

17. My old Volkswagen van is a wreck. The tires are flat. The engine is shot. The battery is dead. Even the seats are torn-up. Everything on the car is messed-up.

18. I like to listen to talk radio programs. In the morning, they have the news. Later in the morning, the announcer interviews famous people and lets people talk to them over the phone. Later, they have a conservative commentator with whom I like to argue. In the evening, they have a psychiatrist on who gives advice to callers.

19. Glendale College has students from Central and South America. They have students from Asia and Australia. There are students from every continent in the world. Some are from Europe. Quite a few are North Americans.

20. Some books are old. Some books are new. Some books are expensive.

21. Proposition 187 was a very controversial law. Some people say that undocumented workers have no right to basic government services. Others say that every human, documented or not, is entitled to basic health care and education out of simple humanity.

22. My friend, Jack, was robbed last week. His apartment was emptied while he was at work. I had a stereo stolen out of my van last year. A month ago, someone stole my neighbor's car. Crime seems to be getting worse over the last few years.

23. San Francisco is famous for its great restaurants. The Golden Gate bridge spans the gap between Marin County and San Francisco. San Francisco is one of the great cities in the world. It has an active fishing industry and is a center for banking and commerce.

24. Never trust a teacher with a beard. I had Mr.Doyle for a class and he gave me a "D". Mr.Edelman has a beard also, and all I got were bad grades from him. Every teacher with a beard has given me a bad grade.

Create a standard outline of these items showing their order of importance.

1. ______ Apple Computers
______ microchips
______ Atari Computers
______ personal computers

2. ______ Nevada
______ United States
______ Arizona
______ Florida
______ Phoenix

3. ______ biology lab
______ learning center
______ Apple Computers
______ college
______ faculty computer center

4. ______ toe nail
______ foot
______ ankle
______ right leg
______ body

5. ______ The airplane over Hawaii lost the top part of its body on a flight from one island to another.
______ Cracks had formed along the top of the plane where the bolts joined sections of the body together.
______ The increase in air accidents has been alarming since deregulation.

6. ______ Many factors contribute to a student's grade in a class.
______ Faithful class attendance is quite important.
______ Regularly turning in assignments is also important.
______ You also can't pass without studying and passing tests.
______ The tests can be very hard.

7. ______ Gold was discovered in California in 1849 and this lead to rapid building of the population on the West coast.
______ The American civil war was fought mostly in the Southern and Southeastern states.
______ The Northeastern areas of the American continent were heavily industrialized.
______ Many events throughout the continental United States changed the character of the country forever.

8. ______ Abraham Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation, thus freeing all the slaves in the Southern states in rebellion against the Union.
______ The move toward increased freedom and suffrage grew rapidly in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
______ A constitutional amendment forbidding slavery was soon passed after the end of the Civil war.
______ Women were granted the right to vote in the early 20th century.

9. ______ The legislative branch of the Federal government is bicameral, which means it is made up of two houses.
______ One of the houses is the House of Representatives, in which congressmen are seated representing delegations of roughly the same populations from the various states.
______ Alan Cranston was one of the senators from California.
______ The other house is the Senate in which are permitted two representatives from each state only.

10. ______ Sol, the nearest star to us is actually what we call the Sun.
______ Another nearby star is thought to be Alpha Centauri, several light years away.
______ There are many stars in our constellation.
______ Our Sun is really quite a small and insignificant star.

11. ______ There are many plucked-stringed instruments
throughout history.
______ The harp has been known to us since biblical times.
______ The lyre is a type of square harp with no fore pillar.
______ The strings were often made of hair or the gut of animals.

More Outlines
Create a standard outline of these items showing their order of importance.
1. ______ Claudius was the emperor who conquered the southern part of England.
______ Claudius also introduced legislation to divide the Roman letter "V" into the vowel "U" and consonant "V".
______ Everyone thought that he was crazy to introduce such an innovation with the alphabet.
______ Of all of the Roman emperors, Claudius was by far one of the most benign.

2. ______ Augustus Caesar, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero were the Roman emperors during the early part of the first century.
______ Augustus' reign was marked by relative peace and prosperity for the empire.
______ Livia, his wife, ended up poisoning Augustus when it appeared that he might change his will, leaving her son, Tiberius without the right to be the next emperor.
______ She painted pieces of fruit with poison while they were on the tree, hoping her husband would pick the fruit for himself.

3. ______ Because he had a limp and often stuttered, his family thought that Claudius was an idiot.
______ His close friends recommended that he "play the fool" .
______ Claudius kept himself out of public display with his family's approval.
______ Although he was actually quite an intelligent man, Claudius found ways so that no one would think to kill him for fear that he might have aspirations to be Caesar.

4. ______ Caligula's reign started benignly, but it soon became evident that he was crazy.
______ He had a horse admitted as a member of the Roman Senate.
______ He believed that he had been converted into a god and had temples built in his own honor.
______ Most of the rules of the Caesars started with peace and joy, but ended in innocent bloodshed, and finally, assassination .
______ Caligula reportedly killed his own sister when, thinking that she was a god also, feared that she would give birth to a god who was greater than him.

General or Specific

Directions: In the paired sentences that follow, write G for the
more general statement and S for the more specific , or E if they
are about equal.

1.______There are several uses for this product.
______One is steam cleaning a motor.

2.______The purposes of this study are many
______Determining the number of injuries is first on the list.

3.______This area has the coldest and hottest regions.
______It also has the wettest and driest lands.

4.______Permissible length of hair has probably been the one which has caused the most discussion.
______Significant changes in school policy have been introduced.

5.______One of the youngest countries is in the Near East.
______One of the oldest countries is also to be found in the Near East.

6.______The principal cause has been found to be an improper diet.
______The causes of poor health in this area can be traced to many factors.

7.______Working in the diamond mines is one of the chief occupations of the Africans in the area.
______Workers are stripped and searched before they begin work and
after they finish.

8.______There are several reasons for his not going.
______Lack of money is probably the most important.

9.______We have now covered three basic principles.
______The first of these principles involves the necessity to invert and multiply when dividing by a fraction.

10.______Only the Senate on the other hand, can approve a treaty.
______All money bills must originate in the House of Representative.

11.______There are several important lessons that all of us need to learn
in life.
______Perhaps the most important one is the need to develop self-discipline.

12.______There are many incorrect beliefs held by people about the different races of the world.
______One is that some races are basically inferior.

13.______The management of this corporation has just issued new statements about fringe benefits.
______All who have been with the company two years or longer will have paid vacations.

14.______Many countries loaned money to India.
______These same countries also contributed engineers and technicians.

15.______Methods of uncovering crime have been greatly improved in recent years.
______Probably one of the most effective techniques used so far has
been skillful wire-tapping .

16.______There were numerous areas of concern discussed in the
last meeting.
______Most of the discussion however, centered on the problem of the increase in drug addiction.

17.______The lack of proper medical treatment for the poor was studied in detail.
______The shortage of food was given special attention.

18.______Signs of discontent were evident throughout the land.
______Repeated demonstrations by students were among the most obvious signs.

19.______His love of nature and beauty showed in all of his songs.
______His hatred of violence and oppression was equally obvious.

20.______He cannot stand trite expressions.
______'Pretty as a picture' annoys him the most.
21.______These are the suggestions of the President...
______An increase in the tax rate must be declared immediately.

22.______He instituted a post office system.
______He made many important changes.

Underline the Topic Sentence

1. There are only four poisonous snakes native to the United States. Three of these are pit vipers: the rattlesnake, the copperhead, and the cottonmouth moccasin. The fourth is the brightly banded coral snake.

2. Keep your tree outdoors until the day before Christmas. Never use lighted candles. There are other suggestions, also, for avoiding the Christmas tree fire. Turn off the tree lights before you leave the house, and get rid of the tree by New Year's Day.

3. Ten thousand people huddle inside a wall which encircles flat-roofed houses built of baked mud. Dust, inches thick, is stirred up by the camels and donkeys as they move through the town. For six months in the year it never rains: 120 degrees in the shade is not uncommon.

4. A fiddler crab waves his brightly colored claws and dances for his lady. The penguin hunts a fine smooth stone and takes it as a gift to his lady. Gestures of courtship like these are common throughout the animal kingdom.

5. To some people, the flood is an enemy. It comes like a river to hit the city and destroy their homes. But to the farmer the water is a friend, even in cloudburst amounts.

6. The great house of yesterday looked to the street and to the people. It was "impressive." But the great house of tomorrow will face away From the street to a hedged-in yard and a private little world of its own.

7. Europe today is the auto maker's dream. Millions of people want cars. More than that, millions of people can afford them.

8. Tall and powerfully built, he appeared to be about fifty. He had youthful gray eyes, intensely blue. Despite his ragged clothes, there was a kind of shaggy nobility in his bearing.

9. We would bring in a full harvest of chestnuts and walnuts. The apples we stored in the cellar, and we sun-dried the other fruits. Autumn was all these joys to us and we looked forward to its coming.

10. The early settlers in South Carolina sought profit. They took to raising Indian corn, hogs, and cattle. Then they looked to the timber lands and the products of the forest.

11. Concrete went into the foundation of the new houses. It was used for streets and for sidewalks. Tall office buildings sprang up largely built of concrete, and concrete was used for aqueducts and dams.

12. The early trains were often fire hazards. The locomotives sent out showers of sparks, so that the passengers were kept busy putting out fires in their clothing. The sparks often set fire to the dry grass and then, in turn, to the farm buildings.

13. Unfortunately, there are no new lands to be discovered. Even the smallest islands can be seen clearly from the air. But there is much to be discovered about the oceans, and science is now exploring them.

14. Changes in temperature are sometimes the reasons for the movements of animals. Crabs and lobsters go into deep water in the winter, then return to shallow water in the spring. Birds and some bats go north or south, depending on the season.

15. The corner of the basement toward the tornado usually offers the greatest safety, particularly in frame houses. People in houses without basements can sometimes find protection by taking cover under heavy furniture against inside walls. Standing next to a wall on a lower floor is a good defensive tactic.

16. Everything was just getting settled after World War II. The Deep South had just begun to feel comfortable again. Then came the ants! Whole colonies of them had sprung into being almost over night. It seemed like an invasion from Mars or some other unearthly place. Agricultural experts were brought in to study the situation and to map strategy for defense.

17. There is much concern over accidents among children. In the age group from 15 to 24 years, pedestrian deaths constitute only twelve percent of the total for the group. In the age group from 0 to 14 years, the percentage is over sixty. There are five times as many deaths among young children as among youth. Yet people 65 years of age or older suffer an even greater percentage of pedestrian deaths (sixty-six percent) than do children! Such facts are useful in indicating where accident-prevention efforts should be concentrated.

18. Finally, at some time or other, one will see a crowd of men, women, and children who seem to move together like a herd of sheep. They huddle together or they rush across the street in a mob. They gather in a group, shouting and jabbering. These are the new arrivals in the city. They have come to Calcutta because of famine, flood, drought, or other causes. They are homeless and hopeless when they reach the city. They get along in Calcutta as men have always managed in a new place.
Who or What is the Sentence About and What Does it Say About it?

1. The school is in on the south side of San Antonio, in one of the city's many barrios.
Who or what? _______________________________________________
What about it? _______________________________________________

2. If you have the need, we can usually provide peer tutors to work with your students.
Who or what? _______________________________________________
What about it? _______________________________________________

3. Shut up!
Who or what? _______________________________________________
What about it? _______________________________________________

4. Sign up for free tutoring in any college subject.
Who or what? _______________________________________________
What about it? _______________________________________________

5. I went to Catholic schools, and at various times planned to be a chemist, a priest, and finally , a teacher.
Who or what? _______________________________________________
What about it? _______________________________________________

6. The Church of the Blessed Sacrament, together with the staff and children of the parish school, is a Catholic community.
Who or what? _______________________________________________
What about it? _______________________________________________

7. Accessing materials not related to the educational mission of Glendale College, for example, pornography, gambling, personal, and gaming sites violates the college acceptable use policy.
Who or what? _______________________________________________
What about it? _______________________________________________

8. Personal use of campus computers is limited .
Who or what? _______________________________________________
What about it? _______________________________________________

9. Welcome to the Internet.
Who or what? _______________________________________________
What about it? _______________________________________________

10. In complete disregard for the law, the president arranged for arms to be delivered to the counterrevolutionaries.
Who or what? _______________________________________________
What about it? _______________________________________________

11. After feeling alone for many hours and finally eating his meager ration of dried crust and salami, Francisco, fearing the dark, cold night, went home.
Who or what? _______________________________________________
What about it? _______________________________________________

12. Bananas and apples have been both used in some specialty sausage mixes.
Who or what? _______________________________________________
What about it? _______________________________________________